Soil erosion is a short essay on soil erosion and conservation of detachment and transportation of soil by natural agencies of water and wind. Factors Influencing Soil Erosion: There are many factors which influence the process of soil erosion; these are discussed below: Precipitation is the most forceful factor causing erosion.
Erosion is dependent on the amount, duration, intensity nassau-demo.updev.dk frequency of rainfall. By the action of dashing rain drops on soil, soil granules are loosened, detached and separated into fine particles.
Short essay on Soil Conservation
Erosion is greater where the rainfall is not only heavy, but concentrated over short periods. The slope accelerates erosion as it increases the velocity of the flowing water. The vegetative cover protects the soil from the beating and dispersing action of the raindrops by forming a canopy short essay on soil erosion and conservation the soil surface.
Vegetation also acts as a mechanical obstruction to flowing water, thus reducing its erosive potential. The plant roots help in building a better structure. They said in opening the soil and thereby accelerating water absorption and reducing surface run-off.
The infiltration and permeability of the soil is improved by the practice of proper tillage and thereby reducing the chances of erosion. But excess tilling exposes the soil to erosion, especially by wind. Nature of the Soil: Erodability of the soil is influenced by the nature of the soil, particularly its texture, structure, organic matter, amounts and kinds of salts present, presence of hard pan in the soil and presence My school annual day essay high short essay on soil erosion and conservation table.
The presence of high water table checks the infiltration and permeability, thus allowing more flow of water on the surface, and greater erosion. At the short essay on soil erosion and conservation time, long continuous rainless periods cause loosening of soil and thus expose the soil to erosion by wind.
Stronger winds have greater erosive potential, thus wind velocity is directly proportional to intensity of erosion. Types of Erosion by Water: Following are the types of soil erosion caused by water Fig.
This type of erosion occurs when the falling raindrops splash on the soil, and beat the bare soil into flowing mud. This occurs short essay on soil erosion and conservation soil is removed uniformly in a thin layer from the entire surface area. Movement of soil by splash erosion is the primary cause of sheet erosion. This type of erosion takes place when the run-off water, laden with soil flowing along the slopes, forms fingerlike channels. Rill erosion is an intermediate stage between sheet erosion and gulley erosion.
As the volume of concentrated run-off increases and attains more velocity on slopes, it enlarges the rill into gullies.
Soil Erosion Essay
At an advanced stage, gullies result in ravines, which are sometimes 50 to feet short essay on soil erosion and conservation. In India ravines cover about 10 million hectares. Landslides cause slip erosion— meryanadulen.000webhostapp.com masses of soil and short essay on soil erosion and conservation slip down, thus damaging the fields in the foothills and causing obstructions in communication. The effect of slip erosion is localised.
Streams and rivers change their courses by cutting one bank and depositing the silt loads on the others. During flash floods, the damage is much accelerated. The Kosi river in Bihar is short essay on soil erosion and conservation to have changed its course westwards by km within the last years.
This type of erosion is caused by the striking action of strong waves. Causes of Soil Erosion: Soil erosion is also referred to as the creeping death. The causes of soil erosion are directly related to improper landuse, and are, therefore, entirely man-made. These include the following: For instance, in the Nilgiris, land has been opened for cultivation of tuber crops like potatoes and ginger without undertaking anti-erosive measures like terracing of slopes.
Also forests on slopes have been cleared at places to make way for plantation crops. Such faulty cultivation methods have caused soil erosion—landslides are a common feature in these areas. An ecologically destructive and uneconomic cultivation method is slash and burn or shifting cultivation which is practised in hill areas of North-East, Chhotanagpur, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. Vast areas have suffered erosion of soil in hill areas of North-East because of shifting cultivation.
A surplus of livestock population in our country is a big strain on grasses and fodder. The tread of cattle hardens the soil and prevents new shoots from short essay on soil erosion and conservation. Overgrazing by goats is a serious problem in certain stretches of the Aravalis and in Punjab and Himachal hills. The goats not only pull off leaves and branches, but they also uproot grass, as opposed to sheep, which only nibble the top shoots. Railway tracks and roads have had to be constructed in such a manner that they are at a higher level than the surrounding area.
Essay on Soil Erosion | Environment
But sometimes, road and rail embankments come in the way of natural drainage channels. This causes waterlogging on one side and water loss on the short essay on soil erosion and conservation side of embankments. All these factors contribute to erosion in one way or the other. Lack of Proper Surface Drainage: Because of proper drainage, waterlogging occurs in low lying areas which loosens the top-soil and makes it prone to erosion. These fires, sometimes natural but often man-made, are very destructive.
As a result of these, the forest cover is lost forever and soil is exposed to erosion. Effects Top 10 best homework excuses lost. Erosion of upper layer of soil decreases the content of organic matter and as other nutrients. As a result, the soil structure gets impoverished.
Decline in Soil Capacity: When the soil is removed bodily from field, both potential and available plant food along with mineral material is carried away. As erosion progresses, the compact soil of low infiltration capacity is approached. The ability of the land to supply moisture for plant growth is reduced and the beneficial activity of micro-organisms lessened.
Due to these bad business editing services the yields are lowered. Deposition of Sand and Gravel on Agricultural Lands: The wind-borne sand encroaches the arable lands and makes them unfertile. Crops are damaged due to sand storms.
Soil Erosion Essay. Erosion is a natural process by which rock and soil are broken loose from the earth’s surface at one location and moved to another – Soil Erosion Essay introduction. Soil erosion forms and changes land by wearing down mountains filling .
Soil erosion in catchment areas of streams due to deforestation and other destructive activities leads to silting of streams and reservoirs. This reduces the capacity of these water bodies to carry large volumes of water, as they occur during the rainy season.
This way the streams are more prone to flooding. One such example is Brahmaputra river which has been exposed to siltation because of large-scale deforestation in the hills, and the floods in Brahmaputra valley have become an annual phenomenon now. Magnitude of the Problem in India: In India, nearly 80 mHa area is exposed to the threat of soil erosion, and 43 mHa area is actually affected. In states like Madhya Pradesh. Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Punjab, upto 15 per cent of the total land suffers from soil erosion.
It is reported that the annual loss of fertility by erosion is 20 times faster than what is lost by growing crops. Each year, 10, hectares area is exposed to erosion. Nearly mHa area in India atepruhiat270488.000webhostapp.com in need of conservation measures. Some Glaring Examples of Soil Erosion: Potato cultivation on steep slopes without proper terracing has caused widespread erosion here.
Because of gully erosion, nearly 10 mHa area is affected. These gulleys are known by different names—khars in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka; ravines in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan short essay on soil erosion and conservation Yamuna and Chambal; kotar lands in Gujarat and chos the rainy season torrents and landslides in Hoshiarpur in the Shivaliks.
Regions of Low and Uncertain Rainfall: Extensive regions of low and uncertain rainfall, forming parts of Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, are characterised by scanty, ill-distributed and highly erosive rains, undulating topography, high wind velocity and generally shallow soils.
The period of heavy downpours from August to October is the period of the heaviest erosion in these regions. Wind erosion, coupled with loss of surface cover in the Aravallis has made the challenge of halting the march of desert in Rajasthan, one of the most vital ecological problems facing the country today.
An extreme example of soil erosion is to be seen in sand movement from the coast in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, where the once flourishing ports are now covered with advancing sand-dunes. Methods to Check Soil Erosion: These measures are a part of the overall strategy to conserve soil and water. These measures can be biological or mechanical Fig. These are discussed below. The following are biological methods to control soil erosion: Improving the Existing Surface Cover: This can be done by resorting to cover cropping by growing groundnut or berseem a fodder crop or short essay on soil erosion and conservation grasslands development by growing grasses like dub, kudzu, pans and dinanath.
This practice consists of growing erosion-permitting crops jowar, bajra, maize in alternate strips with erosion checking close- growing crops grasses, pulses. The erosion checking strips check and hold the flowing water and soil.